2017

教皇科学院打击人体器官买卖和移植旅游全球峰会声明

organtrafficking2017

        根据联合国大会与世界卫生大会有关决议,秉承2015年世界各大城市市长参加的梵蒂冈峰会,以及2014年各大宗教界领袖反对现代奴役的联合宣言,依照教皇方济各2016年6月在反对人口贩卖和有组织犯罪法官峰会上的陈述:“国际法、各国法律、全球的宗教、政治和社会领袖需要认识到人体器官买卖和以获取器官为目的的人口贩卖是一种反人类的罪行”,参加教皇科学院打击器官买卖和移植旅游全球峰会并签署声明的各国代表集体郑重宣布,我们将联合全世界所有与移植事业有关的责任方共同打击这种反人类的罪行。

         贫穷、失业和社会经济弱势群体是导致人体器官买卖和以获取器官为目的的人口贩卖的主要原因。贫穷的人在绝望时受骗或被迫出卖器官以求改善生活和命运而成为受害者。同样,绝望的器官衰竭患者支付巨款以器官移植旅游的方式去国外寻求器官移植以延续生命,却不了解这种非法的商业性质的移植手术可能导致自身健康短期和长期的负面影响。不择手段的中介商和无职业道德的移植外科医生无视人类尊严参与器官买卖。他们在未经授权的医疗机构为器官移植旅游者进行秘密手术。与此同时,人体器官买卖也可能发生在合法的器官移植医疗机构中,一些人会假以器官移植受者家属或有爱心的朋友的身份去合法的移植中心出售自己的器官。我们肯定一些媒体发布的关于器官买卖的独立调查报告作出了重要贡献,向公众披露了人体器官买卖的罪行和受害者的困境,揭露了腐败的医务人员和缺乏监管的医疗机构 。

       许多国际法(例如联合国打击人口贩卖公约-巴勒莫协议、欧洲委员会打击人口贩卖和欧洲委员会打击人体器官买卖公约)都将人体器官买卖定义为犯罪行为。我们支持这些公约,这些公约明确主张参与或协助他人进行人体器官买卖的医务人员应被追究法律责任,无论这种罪行发生在国内还是国外。

        近来一些国家和国际组织出台的一系列法律法规创新性地填补了解决这种社会经济不公平政策的空白。我们认为,人体器官买卖这一行为与联合国大会2030可持续发展决议背道而驰。人体器官买卖关乎人权与社会公正,穷人的器官被用来牟利,而当他们自身器官衰竭时却无法得到器官移植服务。Jeffrey Sachs曾提出“可持续的发展要求经济政策同时注重以下三个重要的方面,以发挥最好的效益:第一、促进经济和工作岗位的增长;第二、促进保障妇女、穷人和少数民族的公平权益;第三、促进环境可持续发展”。我们关注到一些国内局势动荡不安的国家已经成为人体器官移植相关犯罪的高发地。

        世界一些国家的医学专家们依据伊斯坦布尔宣言,近年来在减少人体器官买卖方面取得了一定的进展。但是现在仍然有一些国家是全球器官移植旅游的目的地。这些国家缺乏保护贫弱群体免于人体器官买卖侵害的法律法规,或对人体器官买卖罪行执法力度比较薄弱。还有一些国家因为没有履行向其公民提供器官移植服务的政府责任,而导致人体器官买卖犯罪的持续滋生。

        因此,我们根据联合国可持续发展目标、联合国打击人口贩卖巴勒莫议定书、世界卫生大会决议(2004和2010)、欧洲委员会打击人口贩卖公约、欧洲委员会打击人体器官买卖公约、人体器官捐献和移植马德里决议和伊斯坦布尔宣言,通过此次教皇科学院打击人体器官买卖和移植旅游全球峰会上各国代表所报告的数据及研讨成果,我们共同签名承诺:为打击这种非法和不道德的行为,响应教皇方济各的倡导,我们作为主要责任方携手共同打击各种形式的人体器官买卖。教皇科学院全球峰会建议世界各国的各级政府、卫生主管部门、司法部门、各大宗教、专业医学组织和公众在全球范围内落实以下措施:

1.     所有国家和所有民族的文化都认同人体器官买卖和以获取人体器官为目的的人口贩卖(包括获取死囚器官和向逝世后人体器官捐献者家属购买器官)是一种必须在全世界范围内受到谴责的罪行,应当在国家和国际层面受到法律的起诉和制裁。

2.     各国宗教界领袖鼓励符合伦理的人体器官捐献,并谴责人体器官买卖、器官移植旅游和以获取人体器官为目的的人口贩卖行为。

3.     所有国家都应当在国家层面(或结合适当的区域合作)通过采取积极措施提供足够的资源支持发展伦理合规的人体器官捐献,提高器官移植服务于民众的可及性,并采取预防措施应对器官衰竭、降低器官移植的需求,实现本国器官移植服务的自给自足。

4.     各国政府应当建立法律框架(例如欧洲委员会打击人体器官买卖公约),为预防和检控可能发生在任何地方的人体器官移植相关罪行提供明确的法律基础,并保护受害者。

5.     医务人员应当对人体器官捐献者和移植受者的短期和长期医疗预后进行伦理学和医学评估。

6.     各国政府应当建立数据库,记录包括在本国司法管辖范围内发生的所有人体器官获取和移植手术,以及本国公民(居民)在司法管辖范围外(国外、境外) 接受的所有器官移植手术,并与国际数据库共享相关数据。

7.     各国政府应当建立法律框架,允许医务人员和其他专业人员在履行对患者的专业职责的同时,就可能牵涉人体器官移植犯罪的案例进行交流沟通。

8.     各国政府的各主管部门,在本国司法系统的协助下,应当严格调查在其司法管辖区域内或其公民(居民)在其司法管辖区域外参与的任何可能的人体器官移植犯罪案例。

9.     各国政府的各主管部门、保险机构和慈善机构不应当支付涉及到人体器官买卖和以获取人体器官为目的的人口贩卖罪行的器官移植案例的费用。

10.  器官移植相关的医学专业组织应当敦促其成员知晓并遵从关于打击人体器官买卖和以获取器官为目的的人口贩卖的相关法律和国际指南。

11.  世界卫生组织、欧洲委员会,联合国各机构(包括联合国毒品和犯罪问题办公室)和其他国际组织应当全面合作,综合收集各国人体器官移植犯罪的相关信息,明确界定这些犯罪的性质、范围和犯罪网络的组织架构。

翻译: 王海波 黄洁夫  教皇科学院打击人体器官买卖与移植旅游全球峰会中国代表

Translated by Drs. Haibo Wang and Jiefu Huang, Chinese Delegation to the Pontifical Academy of Science Summit of Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism.

 

Signatories

1. Chancellor Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, Chancellor of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences

2. Jeremy Chapman, Director of the Division of Medicine and Cancer Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia

3. Alex Capron, USC University Professor Scott H. Bice Chair in Healthcare Law, Policy and Ethics (Gould School of Law) Professor of Medicine and Law (Keck School of Medicine) Co-Director, Pacific Center for Health Policy and Ethics

4. José Nuñez, Medical Director Donation and Transplant program of the World Health Organization WHO Geneva, Switzerland

5. Beatriz Domínguez Gil, Medical Officer Organización Nacional de Trasplantes Madrid, Spain

6. Francis Delmonico, New England Organ Bank Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA, USA

7. Gustavo Vera, MP City of Buenos Aires, Argentina

8. Marta López Fraga, Scientific Officer European Committee on Organ Transplantation (CD-P-TO) European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM), Council of Europe

9. Mirela Busic, Head of Department for Special Health Care and Transplantation, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia

10. Branko Hrvatin, President Supreme Court of Croatia Zagreb, Croatia

11. Aimee Comrie, Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Officer UNODC, Vienna, Austria

12.   Dominique Martin, Senior Lecturer in Health Ethics and Professionalism at Deakin University Geelong, Australia

13.   Elmi Muller, Department of Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital University of Cape Town, South Africa

14.   Annika Tibell, Chief Physician, PMO, new Karolinska, Karolinska University Hospital Adjunct professor Medical Ethics, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden

15.   Emanuele Cozzi, Italian National Transplant Centre,  Italy

16.   Gilad Erlich, Senior Criminal Prosecutor District Attorney of the Central Region (Greater Tel Aviv), Israel

17.   Axel Rahmel, Medical board German Organ Transplantation Foundation, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

18.   Ignazio Marino, Professor of Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, USA

19.   Kristoff Van Asshe, Research Professor in Health Law and Kinship Studies, University of Antwerp, Belgium

20.   Mustafa Mousawi, Chairman of Organ Transplant Center, Kuwait President of Kuwait Transplant Society

21.   Bassam Saaed, Consultant Pediatric Nephrologist Al Jahra Hospital, Kuwait - President of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation (MESOT)

22.   Somchai Eiam-Omg, Professor of Medicine Division of Nephrology Chulalongkorn University Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

23.   Ali Bagheri, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Medical Ethics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
Member of UNESCO International Bioethics Committee

24.   Alexis García López, Department of Nephrology-Urology and Kidney Transplantation, Manuel de Jesús Rivera Children’s Hospital, Managua, Nicaragua

25.   Marti Manyalich, President of Donation & Transplantation Institute, DTI Barcelona, Spain

26.   Marina Minina, Head
Coordinating Center of Organ Donation Moscow, Russia

27.   Shashank Bengali, South Asia Bureau Chief at Los Angeles Times

28.   Naziha Syed Ali, Assistant Editor at Dawn Newspaper, Pakistan

29.   Jay Lavee, President, Israel Transplantation Society Professor of Surgery
Director, Heart Transplantation Unit
Leviev Heart Institute, Sheba Medical Center Tel Aviv University Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel

30.   Mario Abbud Filho, Associate Professor of Medicine
Head Nephrology Discipline, Medical School FAMERP,
Director Organ Transplantation Center Foundation FUNFARME São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil

31.   Gabriel Gondolesi, Jefe de Cirugía General. Jefe de Trasplante Hepatico, Reno-Pancreático y de Unidad de Soporte Nutricional, Rehabilitación y Trasplante Intestinal.
Hospital Universitario, Fundación Favaloro. Investigador en Salud del Conicet, miembro del IMeTTyB, Universidad Favaloro-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

32.   Benita Padilla, Head, Human Organ Preservation Effort (HOPE) Manila, Philippines

33.   Gabriel Danovitch, Medicine, Nephrology
Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center Connie Frank Kidney Transplant Center Los Angeles, California, USA

34.   Igor Codreanu, Transplant Agency of Moldova

35.   Alejandro Niño Murcia, President of Latin American and Caribbean Society of Transplantation,
 Bogotá, Colombia

36.   Mehmet Haberal, Founder and President of the Turkish Transplantation Society President of the Executive Supreme
Board of Baskent University
Turkey

37.   Jiefu Huang, Chairman
National Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee Beijing, P.R. China

38.   Nancy Ascher, Professor of Surgery
Division of Transplant Surgery
Isis Distinguished Professor in Transplantation
Leon Goldman, MD Distinguished Professor in Surgery

39.   Adeera Levin, President, International Society of Nephrology Vancouver, Canada

40.   Phil O'Connell, Immediate Past President The Transplantation Society Sydney, Australia

41.   Haibo Wang, Councilor, Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group Director, China Organ Transplant Response System Member of National Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee, P. R. China

42.   Ali Malek Hosseini, Chief of Organ Transplantation Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Shiraz, Iran

43.   Terence Kee, Senior Consultant
Department of Renal Medicine Singapore General Hospital

44.   Phan Hai An, Director of International Cooperation Department Hanoi Medical University
Head of Kidney Diseases and Dialysis Department Viet Duc University Hospital, Vietnam

45.   Maryana Doitchinova Simeonova, Executive director of the Bulgarian Agency of transplantation Sofia, Bulgaria

46.   Milbert Shin, Human Rights Attorney

47.   Debra Budiani-Saberi, Director of NGO
Coalition for Organ Failure Solutions Washington DC, USA

48.   José Medina Pestana, Professor of Nephrology and Head of the Kidney and Pancreas Transplant Program
Hospital do Rim
São Paulo, Brazil

49.   Maria Matamoros, Director, Liver Transplant Centre / Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), Costa Rica

50.   Riadh Fadhil, Professor of Urology & Transplant Surgery at Hamad Medical Corporation Director of Qatar Organ Donation Center (HIBA)

51.   Rudolf Garcia Gallont, Presidente Directiva Hospital Herrera Llerandi

52.   Maria Antonio Soledad, Department of Health Philippines

53.   Tim Pruett, President American Society of Transplant Surgeons Professor of Surgery and Internal Medicine,
John S Najarian Chair of Transplantation University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA

54.   Greg Obrador, Universidad Panamericana, Campus México
Dean, Faculty of Health Sciences & School of Medicine Mexico City, Mexico

55.   Karina Jazmín Durán Martínez, Fiscal de la Unidad Epecializada en Investigación de Tráfico de Menores, Personas y Órganos, Subprocuradoría Especializada en Investigación de Delincuencia Organizada, México

56.   John  Gill, Professor of Medicine Division of Nephrology St. Paul’s Hospital Vancouver, Canada

57.   Sandeep Guleria, National Kidney and Transplant Institute Delhi, India

58.   Faissal Shaheen, Director General
Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation (SCOT) Senior Consultant Physician and Nephrologist

59.   Hirato Egawa, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Department of Surgery, Institute of Gastroenterology

60.   Campbell Fraser, Department of International Business and Asian Studies Griffith Business School
Nathan campus, Griffith University,
Australia

61.   Monir Moniruzzaman, Assistant Professor Department of Anthropology and Center for Ethics and Humanities in the
Life Sciences Michigan State University

62.   Sunil Shroff, Mohan Foundation Chennai, India

63.   Sally Johnson, Director of Organ Donation and Transplantation NHS Blood and Transplant, UK

64.   James McDaid, Belfast City Hospital Queen’s University Belfast, Ireland

65.   Aonghus Kelly, European Union Integrated Border Assistance Mission in Libya

66.   Curie Ahn, Department of Translational Medicine Seoul National University, South Korea

67.   Fahim Zaman, MD, FACP 

68.   Ademola Aderibigbe, Former Head Renal Care Center
University of Florin
Teaching Hospital & Director Maayoit HealthCare Ltd Ilorin, Nigeria

69.   Andreas Karampinis, President
Hellenic Transplant Organization Athens, Greece

70.   Roman Danielewicz, Polish Transplant Society Warsaw, Poland

71.   Alessandro Nanni Costa, Director-General
Italian National Transplant Centre, Italy

72.   Jose Marie Simon, Honorary President
FIAMC (Fédération Internationale des Associations de Médecins Catholiques)

73.   María del Carmen Bacqué, Presidenta del INCUCAI
(Instituto Nacional Unico Coordinador de Ablación e Implante)

74.   Salvador Aburto, Director General
Centro Nacional de Trasplantes de la Secretaria de Salud Ciudad de México, México

75. Nelufar Hedayat, Journalist and presenter for Fusion Media Network London, UK

76. Rosi Orozco, United vs. Trafficking Foundation

77. John McCaffrey, Galileo Foundation

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