Joseph Edward Murray
Milford, MA, 1 April 1919 – Boston, MA, 26 November 2012
Nomination 30 May 1996
Title Professor, Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine, 1990
Most important awards, prizes and academies
Awards: Francis Amory Prize, American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1962); Lifetime Achievement Award, Massachusetts Medical Society; Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1990); Medal for Distinguished Service to Surgery, American Surgical Association (1991); Sabin Award, Americans for Medical Progress (1994). Academies: National Academy of Sciences (1993); Hon. Fellow Royal College of Surgeons of England; Hon. Fellow Royal Australasian College of Surgeons; American Surgical Association; American Soc. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
Summary of scientific research
Joseph Murray's career was devoted to medical surgery and in particular to plastic and reconstructive surgery, and he was Chief Plastic Surgeon at two major Boston hospitals. He was not only a working surgeon, but also a researcher and theoretician. He thus engaged in debate, research and discussion at an international level, being constantly in the vanguard of new developments and techniques, never hesitating to adopt bold and innovative approaches. Considered one of the pre-eminent experts in his field, the award of the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1990 was a recognition of his many achievements in his field of specialisation.
Books: Murray, J.E., Surgery of the Soul, Science History Publications (2001). Articles: Over three hundred articles and essays, including: Murray, J.E., Matson, D.D., Habal, M.B., and Geelhoed, G.W., Regional Cranio-Orbital Resection for Recurrent Tumors with Delayed Reconstruction, Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, 134, p. 437 (1972); Belfer, M.L., Harrison, A.M., Pillemer, F.C., and Murray, J.E., Appearance and Influence of Reconstructive Surgery on Body Image, Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 9 (3), p. 307 (1983); Murray, J.E., Kaban, L.B., and Mulliken, J.B., Analysis and Treatment of Hemifacial Microsomia, Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 74, p. 789 (1984); Murray, J.E., Mulliken, J.B., Kaban, L.B., Microtia: A Microfilm of Hemifacial Microsomia, Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 76, n. 2, pp. 859-64 (1985); Murray, J.E., Mulliken, J.B., Kaban, L., Evenas, C.A., and Strand, R.D., Facial Skeletal Changes Following Hypertelorbitism Correction, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 77, n. 1, pp. 7-15 (1986); Murray, J.E., The Many Faces of Surgery: Presidential Address, Archives of Surgery, vol. 123, pp. 543-4 (1988); Murray, J.E., The First Successful Organ Transplants in Man, Nobel Lecture (December 8, 1990), Les Prix Nobel, The Nobel Foundation, 1990/1991; Murray, J.E., The Role of Surgeon-Scientists in Medical Progress, ACS Bulletin, pp. 23-8 (Feb. 1992); Murray, J.E., Reflections on Plastic Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 89, n. 5, pp. 944-8 (1992); Murray, J.E., Human Organ Transplantation: Background and Consequences, Science, 256, pp. 1411-6 (1992); Murray, J.E., Organ Transplantation and the Revitalization of Immunology, in Callager, R.B., Gilder, J., Nossal, G.J.V. and Salvatore, G., Immunology: The Making of a Modern Science (Academic Press, London, 1995); Murray, J.E., The Excelsior Surgical Society/Edward D. Churchill Lecture, Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons, 80, 8, pp. 14-25, (1995); Murray, J.E., Surgery and the Value of Life, Dolentium Hominum: To Know, Love and Serve, Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference of the Vatican, November 24-26, 1994, 28:X, 1995; Murray, J.E., Merrill, J.P., and Harrison, J.H., Renal Homotransplantation in Identical Twins, (Reprinted from Surgical Forum, VI, p. 432, 1955, with commentaries by Joseph E. Murray and Charles B. Carpenter), Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 12, p. 201, 2001.